World anti-doping agency: WADA


WADA Anti-doping Code.

The Code is the core document that provides the framework for harmonized anti-doping policies, rules and regulations within sport organizations and among public authorities. It works in conjunction with five International Standards aimed at bringing harmonization among anti-doping organizations in various areas: testing, laboratories, Therapeutic Use Exemptions (TUEs), the List of Prohibited Substances and Methods, and for the protection of privacy and personal information.


Doping Offence at the Intersection of Athletics and Criminal Law: LL.Lic. Essi Kinnunen’s doctoral thesis, in the areas of
criminal law and sports law, analyses the juridification of doping as well as
the birth processes and content of the regulations in the Penal Code related to
doping offences. In 2002, specific penal provisions for doping offences were
added to Chapter 44 of the Penal Code of Finland, criminalising the illegal
manufacture, importing, distribution and possessing with intent to distribute of
synthetic anabolic steroids, testosterone and growth hormone.

Éléments choisis de jurisprudence rendue en application du Code mondial antidopage par Olivier Niggli / Julien Sieveking

Since August 2004, and the implementation of the World Anti-Doping Code, an important case law has been issuedboth by Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) and disciplinary panels from sports and anti-doping organizations. Thearticle focuses on three important topics: (i) the relation between the athlete and his medical entourage; (ii) thespecified substances and the requirement to prove that there was no intent to enhance performance; and (iii) theissue of proportionality of the sanctions. The authors refer to the recent case law taken mainly from CAS, as well asto a recent legal opinion by the former President of the Swiss Federal Court, Judge Claude Rouiller, on thecompatibility of the sanction with general principles of Swiss law.

PEDs destroy the fascination of physically superior athletes by Frank Deford (SI)

Story Highlights
  • Humans are fascinated by sport because it requires a gracefully superior  body

  • PEDs destroy that basic truth of athletes’ bodies being better than the  rest

  • Drugs make sport just another form of entertainment with special  effects



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